steel is a combination of iron , carbon and some others alloy and non-alloyed. Steel is alloyed with various elements to improve physical properties and to produce special properties such as resistance to corrosion or heat. different alloy elements have different effects to steel Mechanical and Physical properties. Specific effects of the addition of such elements are outlined below:

?C (Carbon)

C element is the most important constituent of steel. It can raises hardness, tensile strength and resistance to wear and abrasion. But it can?reduce?ductility, toughness and machinability of steel.

Si (Silicon)

Si element is a deoxidizer and degasifier. It increases ductility, tensile and yield strength, hardness, forgeability and magnetic permeability.

It is the most important composition in spring steel.

Mn (Manganese )

It is a deoxidizer and degasifier and can reacts with sulfur to improve forgeability. It increases tensile strength, hardness, hardenability and resistance to wear. ?It increases the rate of carbon-penetration in carburizing. But?It decreases tendency toward scaling and distortion.

It is the most important element in?wear-resistant steel. like Din W-Nr X120Mn12, GB?ZGMn13.

P (Phosphorus)

Increases strength and hardness and improves machinability. However, it adds marked brittleness or cold-shortness to steel.

S (Sulfur)

Improves machinability in free-cutting steels, but without sufficient manganese it produces brittleness at red heat. It decreases weldability, impact toughness and ductility.

Cr (Chromium )

Cr element is very important in steel. It can increases steel’s hardness, tensile strength, hardenability, toughness, resistance to wear and abrasion, resistance to corrosion, and scaling at elevated temperatures.

Mo (Molybdenum)

Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness, as well as creep resistance and strength at elevated temperatures. It improves machinability and resistance to corrosion and it intensifies the effects of other alloying elements. In hot-work steels and high speed steels, it increases red-hardness properties.

V (Vanadium )

Increases strength, hardness, wear resistance and resistance to shock impact. It retards grain growth, permitting higher quenching temperatures. It also enhances the red-hardness properties of high-speed metal cutting tools.

Cu (Cobalt )

Increases strength and hardness and permits higher quenching temperatures and increases the red hardness of high speed steel. It also intensifies the individual effects of other major elements in more complex steels.

CB (Columbium)

Used as stabilizing elements in stainless steels. Each has a high affinity for carbon and forms carbides, which are uniformly dispersed throughout the steel. Thus, localized precipitation of carbides at grain boundaries is prevented.

Cu (Copper)

In significant amounts is detrimental to hot-working steels. Copper negatively affects forge welding, but does not seriously affect arc or oxyacetylene welding. Copper can be detrimental to surface quality. Copper is beneficial to atmospheric corrosion resistance when present in amounts exceeding 0.20%. Weathering steels are sold having greater than 0.20% Copper.

Nickel (Ni)

Increases strength and hardness without sacrificing ductility and toughness. It also increases resistance to corrosion and scaling at elevated temperatures when introduced in suitable quantities in high-chromium (stainless) steels.

Ta (Tantalum)

Used as stabilizing elements in stainless steels. Each has a high affinity for carbon and forms carbides, which are uniformly dispersed throughout the steel. Thus, localized precipitation of carbides at grain boundaries is prevented.

Ti (Titanium )

Used as stabilizing elements in stainless steels. Each has a high affinity for carbon and forms carbides, which are uniformly dispersed throughout the steel. Thus, localized precipitation of carbides at grain boundaries is prevented.

W (Tungsten )

Increases strength, wear resistance, hardness and toughness. Tungsten steels have superior hot-working and greater cutting efficiency at elevated temperatures.

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